Energy Policy

Our Industry-leading Analytics Tools Inform Public Policies

Greatly augmenting our history of advising clients on changes to policy and technical trends, Willdan in 2019 acquired Energy and Environmental Economics, Inc. (E3), a leading energy economics and strategy consulting firm. Founded in 1989, E3 helps utilities, regulators, policy makers, developers, and investors nationwide make strategic decisions as they implement new public policies, respond to technological advances, and address customers’ shifting expectations.

E3 has developed several industry-leading analytical tools in electricity resource planning, greenhouse gas scenario analysis, energy markets analysis, and demand-side resource valuation. For a full description of E3's capacities and case studies, visit

Highlighted Project

California pathways

California Energy Commission

Deep Decarbonization in a High Renewables Future: Updated Results from the California PATHWAYS model

Energy and Environmental Economics (E3), a Willdan Company, evaluated long-term energy scenarios in California through 2050 using the California PATHWAYS model. These scenarios investigate options and costs to achieve a 40% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) by 2030 and an 80% reduction by 2050, relative to 1990 levels.

All of the ten mitigation scenarios evaluated are characterized by high levels of energy efficiency and conservation, renewable electricity generation, and transportation electrification. They differ in assumptions about biofuels and building electrification. To achieve high levels of adoption of electric vehicles, energy efficiency and electrification in buildings, near-term action is necessary to avoid costly replacement of long-lived equipment in 10-15 years. Furthermore, market transformation is essential to reduce the capital cost of electric vehicles and heat pumps.

Read more and download report.